About the empire
Chalukya dynasty was a Classical Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. The Western Chalukyas ruled the Deccan (i.e., peninsular India) from 543 to 757 C.E and again from about 975 to about 1189. The Eastern Chalukyas ruled in Vengi (in eastern Andhra Pradesh state) from about 624 to about 1070. Established by Pulakeshin-I in 543. Pulakeshin-I took Vatapi (modern Badami in Bagalkot district, Karnataka) under his control and made it his capital. Pulakeshin-I and his descendants are referred to as Chalukyas of Badami. The rule of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka as it saw the birth of efficient administration, overseas trade and commerce and the development of a new style of architecture called Chalukyan architecture. Kannada literature, which had enjoyed royal support in the 9th century Rashtrakuta court found eager patronage from the Western Chalukyas in the Jain and Veerashaiva traditions. The Badami Chalukyas minted coins that were of a different standard compared to the coins of the northern kingdoms. The government, at higher levels, was closely modelled after the Magadhan and Satavahana administrative machinery and at lower levels of administration, the Kadamba style prevailed fully.
Famous kings of their empire
Jayasimha (c. 500-520): Jayasimha was the first ruler of the Chalukya dynasty of Vatapi ruled the area around modern Bijapur in the early 6th century and was the grandfather of the dynasty's first sovereign ruler, Pulakeshin-I.The Mahakuta inscription eulogizes Jayasimha as the very receptacle of brilliance, energy, valour, memory, intellect, splendour, polity and refinement, it compares him to the deity Maghavan. According to the Yevor inscription of the later Kalyani Chalukyas, who claimed descent from the Vatapi Chalukyas, Jayasimha was a brave ruler, and bore a "stately and gigantic personality".
Ranaraga (c. 520-540): Ranaraga was an early 6th century ruler of the Chalukya dynasty of Vatapi, A vassal ruler, he was the father of the dynasty's first sovereign ruler, Pulakeshin-I. Ranaraga succeeded his father Jayasimha, who was also a vassal ruler, possibly that of the Kadambas or the early Rashtrakutas of Manapura. Ranaraga appears to have spent his reign stabilizing the Chalukya power in the area and his fondness for war elicited the affection of his own people and caused vexation of mind to his enemies.
Pulakeshin-I (540–566): Pulakeshin was the first sovereign ruler of the Chalukya dynasty of Vatapi and ruled parts of the present day Maharashtra and Karnataka states in the western Deccan region of India and performed the Ashvamedha sacrifice to assert his sovereign status. The dynasty established by him went on to rule a major part of peninsular India in the subsequent years and according to the Godachi inscription of his son Kirttivarman-I, Pulakeshin bore the title Dharma-maharaja (great king of dharma).
Kirtivarman-I (566–597): Kirttivarman-I was the son of his predecessor Pulakeshin-I, the first sovereign ruler of the dynasty. He expanded the Chalukya kingdom by defeating the Nalas, the Mauryas of Konkana, the Kadambas, the Alupas, and the Gangas of Talakad and ruled parts of present-day Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. The Aihole inscription of Pulakeshin-II states that Kirttivarman was "the night of doom" for the Nalas, the Mauryas and the Kadambas.
Mangalesha (597–609): Mangalesha succeeded his brother Kirttivarman-I on the throne, and ruled a kingdom that stretched from southern Gujarat in north to Bellary-Kurnool region in the south, in the western part of the Deccan region. Mangalesha was a Vaishnavite, and constructed a Vishnu temple during the reign of his brother Kirttivarman-I. He was tolerant of other sects, as evident by the Mahakuta Pillar inscription, which records his gift to a Shaivite shrine. The 610-611 CE Goa inscription, issued by the Chalukya vassal Satyashraya Dhruvaraja Indravarman, was probably issued during the reign of Mangalesha, and can be used to determine his regnal period.
Pulakeshin-II (609–642): Pulakeshin-II was the most famous ruler of the Chalukya dynasty and expanded to cover most of the Deccan region in peninsular India during his reign. The most notable military achievement of Pulakeshin was his victory over the powerful northern emperor Harsha-vardhana, whose failure to conquer the Chalukya kingdom is attested by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang. Pulakeshin was a Vaishnavite, but was tolerant of other faiths, including Shaivism, Buddhism, and Jainism. He patronized several scholars, including Ravikirtti, who composed his Aihole inscription. Pulakeshin's Hyderabad inscription is dated 613 CE and was issued during the third year of his reign, which suggests that he must have ascended the throne in c. 610–611 CE.
Adityavarman (c. 643-645): Adityavarman was a son of Pulakeshin-II, who was defeated and probably killed when the Pallavas invaded and captured the Chalukya capital Vatapi. According to the Kurnool and Nelakunda inscriptions, Adityavarman bore the regnal titles Shri Prithvi Vallabha, Maharajadhiraja and Parameshvara. The Kurnool inscription boasts that he possessed the supreme rule over the whole circuit of earth which had been overcome by the strength of his arm and prowess.
Abhinavaditya (c. 645-646): Abhinavaditya appears to have succeeded his father Adityavarman on the weakened Chalukya throne, in the period following the death of his grandfather Pulakeshin-II. The Nelkunda copper-plate inscription of Abhinavaditya is in form of a set of three copper-plates tied using a circular ring, which is fastened to a circular seal containing a boar emblem. The first and the third plates are engraved only on one side, while the second plate is engraved on both the sides, mainly the inscription records Abhinavaditya's grant of the Nelkunda village, located in the Uchcha-shringa vishaya (district) to a Brahmana named Kuppa-sharman.
Chandraditya (c. 646-649): Chandraditya ruled in the Deccan region of south India. After his death, his wife Vijaya-Bhattarika appears to have ruled as a regent on behalf of their minor son. During this period, his brother Vikramaditya-I, who later ascended the throne, seems to have restored the Chalukya power as the supreme commander of the Chalukya army. The Kuknur inscription of Vikramaditya accords Chandraditya the title Bhattaraka. The royal genealogy section of the Nerur inscription introduces Chandraditya's younger brother Vikramaditya-I after his father Pulakeshin-II, describing Vikramaditya as the restorer of the Chalukya rule.
Vijaya-Bhattarika (regent) (c. 650-655): Vijaya-Bhattarika is known from her Nerur and Kochre grant inscriptions, which call her Vijaya-Bhattarika and Vijaya-Mahadevi respectively. She was the wife of Chandraditya. The theory that Vijaya-Bhattarika ruled as a regent for her minor son after Chandraditya's death and her Nerur, Kochre inscriptions accord her husband imperial titles and her the titles of a chief queen Mahishi, Bhattarika and Mahadevi.
Vikramaditya-I (655–680): Vikramaditya-I was the third son of Pulakeshi-II on to the Chalukya throne. He restored order in the fractured kingdom and made the Pallavas retreat from the capital Vatapi. Vikramaditya inherited the traditional titles of the dynasty, including Satyashraya and Shri-prithvi-vallabha and also bore the titles Maharajadhiraja, Rajadhiraja, Parameshvara and Bhattaraka. The inscriptions of Vikramaditya state that he obtained the "regal fortune of his father which had been concealed by three kings" and thus "made the entire burden of royalty rest upon one person".
Vinayaditya (680–696): Vinayaditya was the son of Vikramaditya I and the successor of the chalukya kingdom and carried campaigns against the Pallavas, Kalabhras, Haihayas, Vilas, Cholas, Pandyas, Gangas and many more. He levied tribute from the kings of Kavera, Parasika(Iran), Sinhala(Ceylon) and acquired the banner called Palidhvaja by defeating the Lord of the entire Uttarapatha. He had fought alongside his father against the Pallavas. According to the Jejuri record of 684, he defeated the Pallavas, Kalabhras, Keralas and the Kalachuris of central India.
Vijayaditya (696–733): Vijayaditya desecnded by his father Vinayaditya on to the Chalukya throne and his long reign was marked by general peace and prosperity. He fought against the Pallavas and extracted tributes from Parameshwar Varma and the Alupas of South Canara who were loyal to the Chalukyas and led by Alupa Chitravahana, brother-in-law of Vijayaditya defeated a Pandyan invasion of Mangalore in 705.
Vikramaditya-II (733–746): Vikramaditya-II ascended the Badami Chalukya throne following the death of his father and had conducted successful military campaigns against their arch enemy, the Pallavas of Kanchipuram. The other notable achievement was the consecration of the famous Virupaksha Temple (Lokeshwara temple) and Mallikarjuna Temple (Trilokeshwara temple) by his queens Lokadevi and Trilokadevi at Pattadakal. Vikramaditya-II conferred the title of Avanijanasraya (refuge of the people of the earth) on Pulakeshin and the Rashtrakuta King Dandivarma or Dantidurga also fought along the Chalukyas against the Arabs.
Kirtivarman-II (reigned 746–753 CE): Kirtivarman-II also known as Rahappa was the last ruler in the Badami Chalukya dynasty and his reign was continuously troubled by the growing power of the Rashtrakutas and Pandyas and finally succumbed to them. Kirtivarman and his Ganga feudatory Sripurusha came into conflict with the Pandya ruler Maravarman Rajasimha-I who was extending the Pandya empire on to the Kongu country which was adjacent to the Ganga kingdom. Kirtivarman was also steadily undermined by the activities of Rashtrakuta Dantidurga who was establishing the Rashtrakuta Empire.
Vengi / Eastern Chalukyas
Kubja Vishnuvardhana (624–641): Kubja Vishnuvardhana was the brother of Chalukya Pulakeshin-II who ruled the Vengi territories in the eastern Andhra Pradesh as the viceroy under Pulakeshin-II, eventually Vishnuvardhana declared his independence and started the Eastern Chalukya dynasty (c. 624) A.D extending from Nellore to Visakhapatnam. He assumed the title of Vishamasiddhi (conqueror of difficulties) and participated in the wars between his brother Putekesin-II and the Pallava Narasimhavarman-I and probably lost his life in battle in 641.
Jayasimha-I (641–673): Jayasimha-I (641–673 CE) succeeded Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the king of Eastern Chalukyas and had a long reign of 32 years, however we know of nothing important happening in his reign.
Indra Bhattaraka (673): Indra Bhattaraka (673 CE) succeeded his brother Jayasimha-I as the king of Eastern Chalukyas and unfortunately there's no reliable information available of him.
Vishnu Vardhana-II (673–682): Vishnuvardhana-II (673 – 682 C.E.) became the Eastern Chalukya king following the very short rule of his father Indra Bhattaraka and there's no reliable information available of him.
Vishnuvardhana-IV (772–808): Vishnuvardhana-IV was the tenth king of the Eastern Chalukyas who reigned from 772 A.D to 808 A.D. Vishnuvardhana-IV married Silabhattarika, the daughter of Rashtrakuta emperor Dhruva Dharavarsha to forge an alliance with the Western Ganga Dynasty after defeating and humbling him in 784.
Rajaraja Narendra (1019–1061): Rajaraja Narendra was the Eastern Chalukya king of the Vengi kingdom in South India whose period was famous for Social and Cultural heritage. During the time of Rajaraja Chola-I, Rajahmundry was sacked by Western Chalukya and the region witnessed the war between Western Chalukya and other neighbouring dynasties and political support by Chola dynasty. The eastern Chalukya Dynasty supported Jainism and Shaivism. Rajaraja Narendra was a Shaivite and requested his teacher, adviser, and court poet Nannayya Bhattaraka to translate the Mahabharata into Telugu.
Kalyani / Western Chalukyas
Tailapa-II (957–997): Tailapa-II was the founder of the Western Chalukya dynasty in southern India and claimed descent from the earlier Chalukyas of Vatapi, and initially ruled as a Rashtrakuta vassal from the Tardavadi-1000 province in the modern Bijapur district of Karnataka. Tailapa control over the western Deccan region between the Narmada and the Tungabhadra rivers and successfully resisted Chola and Paramara invasions, and imprisoned and killed the invading Paramara king Munja.
Satyashraya (997–1008): Satyashraya was a king of the Western Chalukya Empire who was involved in several battles with the Chola dynasty of Thanjavur, the Paramara dynasty and Chedi Kingdom of central India, and the Chaulukyas of Gujarat. Satyashraya held titles as Akalavarsha, Akalankacharita and Sahasabhima.
Vikramaditya-V (1008–1015): Vikaramaditya-V succeeded Satyashraya on the Western Chalukya throne. Unfortunately much of records were not available of his reign.
Jayasimha-II (1015–1042): Jayasimha-II succeeded his brother Vikramaditya-V on the Western Chalukya throne and had to fight on many fronts, against the Cholas of Tanjore in the south and the Paramara dynasty in the north, to protect his kingdom. This period saw the consolidation of the Western Chalukya power in the Deccan that would become a stepping stone towards the growth of the empire under the rule of Someshvara-I, the successor of Jayasimha-II.
Someshvara-I (1042–1068): Someshvara-I was succeeded his father Jayasimha-II to the throne. During his rule, the Chalukyan empire extended to Gujarat and Central India in the north and his several military successes in Central India made him a formidable ruler of a vast empire. He shifted his capital from Manyakheta to Kalyani, the present day Basavakalyana in modern Bidar.
Someshvara-II (1068–1076): Someshvara II succeeded his father Someshvara-I (Ahavamalla) as the Western Chalukya king and eventually Someshvara was deposed by Vikramaditya-VI. Around 1070 A.D. Someshvara-II expanded his empire and brought Malava under his control. The Chola army invaded the Chalukya country and laid a siege to the town of Gutti in and attacked Kampili. Instead of assisting his brother in order to save the Chalukya kingdom, Vikramaditya turned the troubles of his brother into his opportunity to capture the Chalukya throne.
Vikramaditya-VI (1076–1126): Vikramaditya-VI became the Western Chalukya King after deposing his elder brother Someshvara-II, a political move he made by gaining the support of Chalukya vassals during the Chola invasion of Chalukya territory. He earned the title Permadideva and Tribhuvanamalla and had several queens who ably assisted him in administration. Vikramaditya-VI is noted for his patronage of art and letters and his court was adorned with famous Kannada and Sanskrit poets. His rule saw prolific temple building activity. Notable constructions include the Mallikarjuna temple, the Mahadeva temple the Kaitabheshvara temple and the Kalleshvara temple.
Someshvara-III (1126–1138): Someshvara-III ascended the throne of the Western Chalukya Kingdom in 1126 CE and was the third king in this dynasty named after the Hindu god Shiva made numerous land grants to cause of Shaivism and its monastic scholarship. Someshvara was a noted historian, scholar, and poet and authored the Sanskrit encyclopedic text Manasollasa touching upon such topics as polity, governance, astronomy, astrology, rhetoric, medicine, food, architecture, painting, poetry and music making his work a valuable modern source of socio-cultural information of the 11th and 12th-century India.
Jagadhekamalla-II (1138–1151): Jagadhekamalla-II ascended the Western Chalukya throne after Someshvara-III. In his rule, Chalukya empires saw slow decline with the loss of Vengi entirely, though he was still able to control the Hoysalas in the south and the Seuna and Paramara in the north. Jagadhekamalla-II himself was a merited scholar and wrote in Sanskrit Sangithachudamani a work on music.
Tailapa-III (1151–1164): Tailapa-III rule saw the beginning of the end of the Chalukya empire. He succeeded Jagadhekamalla-II to the Western Chalukya throne. He was defeated and taken captive by Kakatiya dynasty's Prola-II, this resulted in other feudatories rising against the Chalukyas and finally Tailapa-III was killed by Hoysala Vira Narasimha in 1162.
Jagadhekamalla-III (1163–1183): Jagadhekamalla-III succeeded Tailapa-III to the highly diminished Western Chalukya empire and overshowded by the emergence of the Southern Kalachuris under Bijjala-II. He found refuge in the Banavasi region of the Western ghats, while Bijjala his former vassal became suzerain at Kalyana in 1162.
Someshvara-IV (1184–1200): Someshvara-IV briefly attempted after 1189 to revive the Chalukya kingdom by defeating the waning Kalachuri kingdom by captuing Basavakalyana briefly but failed to prevent the other feudatories. In the end, the feudatories divided the vast area between the Kaveri River and Narmada River amongst themselves.
Extent of their empire & Patronage towards the Hindu religion
The Badami Chalukya era was an important period in the development of South Indian architecture and the kings of this dynasty were called Umapati Varlabdh and built many temples for the Hindu god Shiva. Both Shaivism and Vaishnavism flourished during the Badami Chalukya period, though it seems the former was more popular. The Chalukyas ruled over the Deccan plateau in India for over 600 years. During this period, they ruled as three closely related, but individual dynasties. These are the Chalukyas of Badami who ruled between the 6th and the 8th century, and the two sibling dynasties, the Chalukyas of Kalyani (also called Western Chalukyas or Later Chalukyas) and the Chalukyas of Vengi (also called Eastern Chalukyas).
Architecture style of the kings
Their temple building activity can be categorised into three phases and the early phase began in the last quarter of the 6th century and resulted in many cave temples, prominent among which are three elementary cave temples at Aihole, followed by four developed cave temples at Badami. These cave temples at Badami are similar, in that, each has a plain exterior but an exceptionally well finished interior consisting of a pillared verandah, a columned hall and a cella which contains the deity of worship. The structural temples at Pattadakal marks the culmination and mature phase of Badami Chalukyan architecture.
Key temples built/enhanced during the Chalukya empire
Famous temples were built in places such as Pattadakal, Aihole and Mahakuta, and priests (archakas) were invited from northern India. The worship of Lajja Gauri, a fertility goddess is known and were however secular and actively encouraged Jainism. One of the Badami Cave temples is dedicated to the Jain faith. Jain temples were also erected in the Aihole complex, the temple at Maguti being one such example. Nearly a hundred monuments built by them, rock cut (cave) and structural, are found in the Malaprabha river basin in modern Bagalkot district of northern Karnataka. There are ten temples at Pattadakal, six in southern dravida style and four in the northern nagara style. Well known among these are the Sangameshwara Temple, the Virupaksha Temple and the Mallikarjuna Temple in the southern style. The Papanatha temple and Galaganatha Temple are early attempts in the nagara – dravida fusion style. Their architecture served as a conceptual link between the Badami Chalukya architecture of the 8th century and the Hoysala architecture popularised in the 13th century and the centre of their cultural and temple-building activity lay in the Tungabhadra region of modern Karnataka state, encompassing the present-day Dharwad district; it included areas of present-day Haveri and Gadag districts. The most notable of the many buildings dating from this period are the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi in the Koppal district, the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti and the Kalleshwara Temple at Bagali both in the Davangere district. Other notable constructions are the Dodda Basappa Temple at Dambal, the Siddhesvara Temple at Haveri and the Airavatesvara Temple at Annigeri. The Eastern Chalukyas built some fine temples at Alampur, in modern eastern Andhra Pradesh.
RAVANA PHADI CAVE TEMPLE - Aihole, Karnataka, India
Ravana Phadi Cave Temple is a Shiva temple considered to be one of the jewels in the Aihole monuments. This rock-cut cave is the 6th century architecture of the Chalukya dynasty with carvings depicting Hindu mythologies. The Chalukyas sponsored artisans and built many temples in this region between the 6th and 8th centuries. Ravana Phadi cave is stylistically unique in the Aihole region, and the closest artwork and style is found in the Rameshwara cave of Ellora in north Maharashtra and also bridges the style and design of "the rock-cut tradition of the Deccan with that of Tamil Nadu".
SRI VIRUPAKSHA TEMPLE - Hampi, Karnataka, India
The largest monument of Chalukyas of Badami was the Virupaksha Temple, Hampi, which was later improvised in the Vijayanagar empire. This temple is special because it has a Panchayat hall kind of design with 12 pillars. This was the earliest experiment for a pillar based structure in temple architecture. There is evidence that indicates additions were made to Virupaksha temple during the later years of the Hoysala and Vijayanagara sovereignty. Temple has a shrine or the holy place of worship, a hall with a number of pillars and 3 antechambers. There are courtyards, a pillared monastery, few small shrines; and entrance ways surrounding the temple. Eastern gateway is the highest of all with nine-tiered and 50 meters in length.
BADAMI CAVE TEMPLES - Badami, Karnataka, India
Badami is quite popular for its cave temples that are cut out of sandstone rocks which surround the Agastya Lake. Caves 1 to 4 are in the escarpment of the hill in soft Badami sandstone formation with most intricately carved Hindu and Jain deities. The architecture includes structures built in the Nagara and Dravidian styles, which is the first and most persistent architectural idiom to be adopted by the early chalukyas. The caves are considered an example of Indian rock-cut architecture, especially Badami Chalukya architecture, which dates from the 6th century. The cave temples are linked by a stepped path with intermediate terraces overlooking the town and lake. The plan of each of the four caves includes an entrance with a verandah supported by stone columns and brackets, a distinctive feature of these caves, leading to a columned mantapa and then to the small square shrine cut deep inside the cave.
AIHOLE LADKHAN TEMPLE - Aihole, Karnataka, India
Chalukya Shiva Temple is originally dedicated to Vishnu, now the main shrine houses a Shiva Linga with a Nandi. The temple was built in a Panchayatana style, indicating a very early experiment in temple construction. The large pillars in the mukha mandapa have beautiful carvings of gods along with floral designs. The outer walls also exhibit extensive designs of early Chalukyas and the sabhamandapa has a big bull at the center. Large plain pillars support the sabhamandapa. The inner sanctum houses a Shivalinga. The walls of sabhamandapa are accompanied by artistic lattice windows. The special feature of this temple is that it starts with a rectangular structure and ends with a square structure. Based on a wooden construction design, the square and rectangular plan has a steep roof, which is an adaptation of wooden styles in stone.
SRI JOGULAMBA DEVI TEMPLE - Alampur, Jogulamba Gadwal, Telangana, India
Alampur Navabrahma Temples are a group of nine early Chalukyan Hindu temples dated to 7th-century that are located at Alampur in Telangana built by the Badami Chalukyas rulers between 640 A.D and 753 A.D. The temple construction was initiated by Chalukya King Pulakesi-II during his visit to Alampur while returning to Badami after his victory over Pallavas of Kanchi. Later, the rulers of Rashtrakuta and Kalyani Chalukya Empires have contributed to the enhancement of these temples. The nine temples at this site reflect some of the early Nagara style of Hindu temples that have partially survived for scholarly studies. The uniqueness of this group of temples lies in their plan and design in the northern architectural style introduced by the Chalukyas of Badami in the 7th century and are emblematic of the Northern Indian Nagara style of architecture.
AIHOLE DURGA DEVI TEMPLE - Aihole, Karnataka, India
Durga temple of Aihole was built in the late 7th century by the dynasty of the Chalukyas, it is the largest of a group of over 120 temples at Aihole which belongs to Badami Chalukya architecture. The most original feature of the temple is a peristyle delimiting an ambulatory around the temple itself and whose walls are covered with sculptures of different gods or goddesses. The rounded ends at the rear or sanctuary end include a total of three layers the wall of the sanctuary itself, the main temple wall beyond a passageway running behind this, and a pteroma or ambulatory as an open loggia with pillars, running all round the building. Stone grilles with various geometrical openwork patterns ventilate the interior from the ambulatory. The heart of the shrine (garbha griha) is surmounted by a tower which announces the future higher towers shikharas and vimanas.
HUCHIMALLIGUDI TEMPLE - Aihole, Karnataka, India
The Huchimalligudi temple in Aihole, built in the 8th century shows an evolution in the temple plan, as it shows an ardhamandapam or an ante-chamber annexed to the main shrine. These are about 125 temples divided into 22 groups scattered all over the villages and nearby fields. Most of these temples were built between the 6th & 8th century by the Chalukya dynasty.
MEGUTI JAIN TEMPLE - Aihole, Karnataka, India
Meguti Jain temple of Aihole is a great example of such great chalukyan structure constructed by great poet, scholar and general Ravikeerti in 634-35 AD. This temple had never been completed since its starting phase. The temple is made of abundant sandstone with fine grain which is easily available in Aihole’s hills and has the distinction of being the only temple in Aihole which can clearly be traced back to 634 A.D. Meguti Jain temple is built on a raised platform and a fight of steps leads us to Pillared Mukhmandapa and the upstairs on the roof is another shrine directly above the main shrine. The superstructure rising above the sanctum wall of the temple has been built at a later date. 12 pillars and 4 pilasters of the large porch have a flat roof with curved eaves and the niches on the exterior walls and friezes on the porch parapet wall are now empty. The low parapet wall is decorated with friezes and kudus.
SURYANARYANA TEMPLE - Aihole, Karnataka, India
The temple consists of a small mandapa with four pillars, rangamandapa with four tall pillars and 12 half pillars followed by the garbhagriha. The doorframe of the sanctum has an image of Garuda holding two snakes, Ganga, Yamuna and an image of Surya in seated posture. Suryanarayana temple has a pyramidal shikara on top. It has a Surya statue with each hand holding a lotus flower in its garbha griya, in a chariot and seven small horses carved at the bottom and the temple outline is intact, but most of the details are damaged by the muslim intruders.
SRI MAHAKUTESHWARA TEMPLE - Badami Mahakoota, Badami, Karnataka, India
Among the temples at Badami, the Muktheeswara temple and the Melagutti Sivalaya are notable for their architectural beauty of Chalukyan architecture. The walls and pillared halls are adorned by beautiful images of gods and human beings which are evidence of chalukyan art. It is still unclear about the details of the construction period and who built it because of the absence of inscriptions.